Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Millions of women all over the world are struggling with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome is seen in approximately 10% of women in the pre-menopausal period (15-45 years). Although this is a common occurrence, there are still many unknowns in the naming, identification, diagnosis and treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome, also called Stein-Leventhal syndrome, is a disease consisting of absence of menstruation, hair growth and obesity (obesity). The patients have enlarged ovaries, thickening the ovary capsule, and many small cysts just below the capsule. However, all laboratory tests and ultrasonography may be normal in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. The diagnosis of the disease is mostly based on clinical findings. The patient may have rare or absent men, pubescence, obesity and infertility in some patients. The cause of polycystic ovarian syndrome, like many other hormonal diseases, is not fully known. Stress, obesity, insulin resistance, disorders in the release of certain hormones in the nervous system and the role of genetic factors are emphasized.

Polycystic ovary syndrome is caused by abnormal production of LH and FSH hormones secreted from the pituitary gland in the brain. As a result of this imbalance, there is no ovulation from the ovaries on a regular basis every month, and the absence or sparse occur. Production of testosterone and androstenodion, also known as male hormones, increases from the ovaries. These secreted male hormones (androgens) turn into estrogen in adipose tissue, and this estrogen increases LH production in return and a vicious cycle arises. Due to excess weight, a resistance to insulin appears. Insulin resistance ultimately increases diabetes metabolism and a tendency to diabetes. It is not exactly known whether insulin resistance is a symptom of the disease or the main cause of the disease. All these symptoms and complaints vary from person to person. Some signs and symptoms are seen in one person, while other signs and symptoms are in another person It can be seen. This situation may cause the disease to be overlooked and skipped.

The most common symptoms are menstrual irregularities, acne, oily skin, increased hair growth, infertility (infertility) and weight gain. Polycystic ovary syndrome is recognized for the first time by the onset of menarche in adolescence. However, even if young girls do not have polycystic ovarian syndrome at the onset of menarche, menstrual irregularities can be seen normally for the first 2 years. The most common irregularity is in the form of rare menstruation. From time to time, it can be seen that amenorrhea, namely the absence of mensin. The bleeding seen after the delay is usually excessive and prolonged. This irregularity is a marker of a disorder in ovulation.

Diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome is made by evaluating clinical findings, laboratory tests, and ultrasound examination. On ultrasonography, a large number of small cysts are detected on the edges of the ovary. These cysts are only a few millimeters in diameter and are not a problem by themselves. The source of cysts are follicles that develop but are not removed by ovulation. Although 20-30% of women have many small cysts in their ovaries, only 5-10% of women have symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome. Therefore, polycystic ovaries alone are not enough to make the diagnosis.

The main goal in treatment is to restore ovulation. In overweight patients, weight loss and ovulation functions and therefore menstruation can return to normal. Birth control pills are used to regulate menstruation in young patients.

As polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance are frequently seen together, one of the new approaches in its treatment is the use of drugs that increase insulin sensitivity. Very good results can be obtained by administering these drugs alone in patients who want children or adding drugs that stimulate ovulation to the treatment.

As a result, in polycystic ovary syndrome;

• Losing existing overweight without losing time is very important in terms of insulin resistance, other risk factors caused by obesity and the course of treatment.

• Healthy eating habits should be gained in the weight loss process and should be made a lifestyle in the future.

• A balanced diet should be consumed. The diet program should be a program in which carbohydrates, proteins and fats are distributed evenly.

• A low and frequent nutrition model should be adopted, and small snacks should be consumed among the 3 main meals to maintain blood sugar balance.

• Healthy carbohydrates with low sugar content and high fiber content should be preferred.

• Consumption should be given to the consumption of vegetables and fruits rich in vitamins and minerals, which are rich in pulp, and at least 4-5 servings of vegetables and fruits should be consumed daily.

• Serving portion control, eating foods slowly, preferring healthy ones in food groups (such as those who prefer semi-skimmed or non-skimmed fats instead of whole milk) are very important for weight control.

• The importance of exercise should not be forgotten. Proper nutrition is important; however, it is insufficient alone, regular exercise is necessary for POS.

• Being positive is very important at all stages of treatment.


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